Justice For All Campaign© Take The Pledge: No Justice No Judges. Below are a list of the States in the U.S. that have Judicial Retention. Vote Do Not Retain for every judge up for retention until such time as the judiciary becomes 100% transparent and accountable and Justice for All is restored to the citizens of the United States.

September 21, 2016 by Lulu

JUSTICE FOR ALL CAMPAIGN©
TAKE THE PLEDGE: NO JUSTICE NO JUDGES.
Below are a list of the States in the US that have Judicial Retention.
This came about starting with Missouri who found elections of judges to
result in “paid” verdicts to corrupt judges. The judicial retention system
works excellent when not corrupted. Colorado has become one of these
corrupted states. Certain employees of the the Colorado Supreme Court
Administrative Division; the Colorado Judicial Performance Commission
and most disturbing, the Chief Justice of the Colorado Supreme Court, Nancy
Rice along with other shameless judicial actors are manipulating the surveys
of Judges. The evidence is in writing and not just a he said, she said. They
are manipulating who gets the surveys so they can bias the recommendations
of the respective Commissions either to retain a judge and in certain
instances to get rid of a judge they don’t like. They have secret unpublished
rules; the rules they do have do not match the Legislative Statutory
provisions and now in Colorado the Judiciary has unlawfully self-exempted
itself from the Colorado Open Records Act; making investigation of their
crimes very difficult if not impossible.
We have tried different methods to gain back the transparency and
accountability of our courts without any success. We have tried bipartisan
legislation; picketing, rallies, 100s of meetings with nothing but empty
promises to fix the problem.
We now feel the only way is to force them to listen to us. The “Justice
for All Campaign”© is very simple. In those States that have the Judicial
Retention; we take a pledge to vote DO NOT RETAIN for every judge up for
retention until such time as the judiciary become 100% transparent and
accountable and Justice for All is restored to the citizens of the United States.
Take the Pledge today, and get two more people to take it. Together we can
make a change.
Sincerely,
/s/Peter Coulter
TransparentCourts@gmail.com]
JUSTICE FOR ALL CAMPAIGN©


Page 1 of 24
States in the US that have a form of Judicial Retention [Modified Missouri Judicial Retention system] for the selection and retention of Judges.
Alaska
Number of Judgeships Supreme Court: 5 Court of Appeals: 3 Superior Court: 40
Number of Districts/Circuits Supreme Court: — Court of Appeals: — Superior Court: 4
Geographic Basis for Selection Supreme Court: statewide Court of Appeals: statewide Superior Court: district
Method of Selection (full term) Supreme Court: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission Court of Appeals: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission Superior Court: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission
Length of Term Supreme Court: at least 3 yrs Court of Appeals: at least 3 yrs Superior Court: at least 3 yrs
Method of Retention Supreme Court: retention election Court of Appeals: retention election Superior Court: retention election
Length of Subsequent Terms Supreme Court: 10 yrs Court of Appeals: 8 yrs Superior Court: 6 yrs
Method of Filling Interim Vacancies Supreme Court: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission Court of Appeals: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission Superior Court: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission
When Interim Judges Stand for Election/Appointment Supreme Court: first general election more than 3 yrs after appointment Court of Appeals: first general election more than 3 yrs after appointment Superior Court: first general election more than 3 yrs after appointment
Selection of Chief Judge/Justice Supreme Court: peer vote Court of Appeals: chief justice appoints Superior Court: chief justice appoints
Term of Office for Chief Judge/Justice Supreme Court: 3 yrs Court of Appeals: 2 yrs Superior Court: 1yr
Qualifications Supreme Court: U.S. citizen; state resident 5 yrs; licensed to practice in state; 8 yrs active legal
practice; mandatory retirement at 70
Page 2 of 24 JUSTICE FOR ALL CAMPAIGN©
Court of Appeals: U.S. citizen; state resident 5 yrs; licensed to practice in state; 8 yrs active legal practice; mandatory retirement at 70
Superior Court: U.S. citizen; state resident 5 yrs; licensed to practice in state; 5 yrs active legal practice; mandatory retirement at 70
Selection and retention methods and term lengths are prescribed by Article 4 of the Alaska Constitution. Note: The court of appeals hears only criminal appeals.
Arizona
Number of Judgeships Supreme Court: 5 Court of Appeals: 22 Superior Court: 174
Number of Districts/Circuits Supreme Court: — Court of Appeals: 2 divisions Superior Court: 15 counties
Geographic Basis for Selection Supreme Court: statewide Court of Appeals: division* Superior Court: county
Method of Selection (full term) Supreme Court: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission Court of Appeals: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission Superior Court: partisan primary; nonpartisan general election/gubernatorial appointment from
nominating commission**
Length of Term Supreme Court: at least 2 yrs Court of Appeals: at least 2 yrs Superior Court: 4 yrs/at least 2 yrs**
Method of Retention Supreme Court: retention election Court of Appeals: retention election Superior Court: reelection/retention election**
Length of Subsequent Terms Supreme Court: 6 yrs Court of Appeals: 6 yrs Superior Court: 4 yrs
Method of Filling Interim Vacancies Supreme Court: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission Court of Appeals: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission Superior Court: gubernatorial appointment/gubernatorial appointment from nominating
commission** When Interim Judges Stand for Election/Appointment
Supreme Court: next general election after 2 yrs in office Court of Appeals: next general election after 2 yrs in office Superior Court: next general election/next general election after 2 yrs in office**
Selection of Chief Judge/Justice Supreme Court: peer vote Court of Appeals: peer vote Superior Court: supreme court appoints
Term of Office for Chief Judge/Justice Supreme Court: 5 yrs Court of Appeals: 1yr Superior Court: remainder of 4 yr term
Qualifications Supreme Court: state resident and licensed in state 10 yrs; mandatory retirement at 70
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Court of Appeals: 30 yrs of age; state resident and licensed in state 5 yrs; local resident 1 yr; mandatory retirement at 70
Superior Court: 30 yrs of age; state resident and licensed in state 5 yrs; local resident 1 yr; mandatory retirement at 70
Selection and retention methods and term lengths are prescribed by Article 6 of the Arizona Constitution.
*Court of appeals judges who reside in Maricopa and Pima Counties stand for retention in those counties. Court of appeals judges who reside in counties other than Maricopa and Pima stand for retention in all of the other counties within their division.
**The Arizona Constitution provides for merit selection and retention of judges in counties with populations of 250,000 or greater. Currently, this includes Maricopa, Pima and Pinal Counties. Counties whose populations are less than 250,000 may adopt merit selection through ballot initiative.
California
Number of Judgeships Supreme Court: 7 Court of Appeals: 102 Superior Court: 1535
Number of Districts/Circuits Supreme Court: — Court of Appeals: 6 Superior Court: 58*
Geographic Basis for Selection Supreme Court: statewide Court of Appeals: district Superior Court: county
Method of Selection (full term) Supreme Court: gubernatorial appointment;**confirmation by commission on judicial appointments*** Court of Appeals: gubernatorial appointment;**confirmation by commission on judicial appointments*** Superior Court: nonpartisan election****+
Length of Term Supreme Court: 12 yrs Court of Appeals: 12 yrs Superior Court: 6 yrs
Method of Retention Supreme Court: retention election Court of Appeals: retention election Superior Court: reelection
Length of Subsequent Terms Supreme Court: 12 yrs Court of Appeals: 12yrs Superior Court: 6 yrs
Method of Filling Interim Vacancies Supreme Court: gubernatorial appointment;**confirmation by commission on judicial appointments*** Court of Appeals: gubernatorial appointment;**confirmation by commission on judicial appointments*** Superior Court: gubernatorial appointment**
When Interim Judges Stand for Election/Appointment Supreme Court: next gubernatorial election Court of Appeals: next gubernatorial election Superior Court: next general election
Selection of Chief Judge/Justice Supreme Court: gubernatorial appointment;**confirmation by commission on judicial appointments*** Court of Appeals: gubernatorial appointment;**confirmation by commission on judicial appointments*** Superior Court: peer vote
Term of Office for Chief Judge/Justice Supreme Court: 12 yrs Court of Appeals: 12 yrs
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Superior Court: 1 or 2 yrs, depending on county Qualifications
Supreme Court: 10 yrs practice of law in state or service as judge of court of record Court of Appeals: 10 yrs practice of law in state or service as judge of court of record Superior Court: 10 yrs practice of law in state or service as judge of court of record
Selection and retention methods and term lengths are prescribed by Article VI of the California Constitution.
*In 1998, voters approved Proposition 220, a constitutional amendment that allowed the judges in each county to merge their superior and municipal courts into a single superior court. By early 2001, all of the state’s 58 counties had voted to unify their courts.
**Since 1979, the legislature has required that the State Bar of California’s commission on judicial nominees evaluation(informally known as the Jenny Commission) review the qualifications and fitness of prospective judicial appointees through an extensive investigation. The commission, which consists of both public members and attorneys, rates candidates as exceptionally well qualified, well qualified, qualified, or not qualified. The governor is not bound by the commission’s recommendations.
***The commission on judicial appointments consists of three members: the chief justice, the attorney general, and the senior presiding justice of the court of appeal of the affected appellate district. When a supreme court appointee is being considered, the third member of the commission is the senior presiding justice of the state’s courts of appeal. The commission holds one or more public hearings to review the appointee’s qualifications and may confirm or veto the appointment by majority vote.
****If no candidate receives a majority of the vote in the primary election, there is a general-election runoff between the top two candidates. If an incumbent judge is unopposed, s/he is automatically reelected; the judge’s name does not appear on the ballot. The constitution provides that electors in each county may, by majority vote, opt for the selection of superior court judges by the method used for appellate court judges. To date, no counties have adopted an appointive process.
+Incumbency designations on the ballot are determined by each county.
Colorado
Number of Judgeships Supreme Court: 7 Court of Appeals: 22 District Court: 164
Number of Districts/Circuits Supreme Court: 1 Court of Appeals: 1 District Court: 22
Geographic Basis for Selection Supreme Court: statewide Court of Appeals: statewide District Court: county
Method of Selection (full term) Supreme Court: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission Court of Appeals: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission District Court: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission
Length of Term Supreme Court: at least 2 yrs Court of Appeals: at least 2 yrs District Court: at least 2 yrs
Method of Retention Supreme Court: retention election Court of Appeals: retention election District Court: retention election
Length of Subsequent Terms Supreme Court: 10 yrs Court of Appeals: 8 yrs
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District Court: 6 yrs Method of Filling Interim Vacancies
Supreme Court: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission Court of Appeals: gubernatorial appointment form nominating commission District Court: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission
When Interim Judges Stand for Election/Appointment Supreme Court: next general election after 2 yrs in office Court of Appeals: next general election after 2 yrs in office District Court: next general election after 2 yrs in office
Selection of Chief Judge/Justice Supreme Court: peer vote Court of Appeals: chief justice appoints District Court: chief justice appoints
Term of Office for Chief Judge/Justice Supreme Court: indefinite Court of Appeals: indefinite District Court: indefinite
Qualifications Supreme Court: qualified elector in state; licensed to practice law in state 5 yrs; mandatory
retirement age of 72 Court of Appeals: qualified elector in state; licensed to practice law in state 5 yrs. mandatory
retirement age of 72 District Court: qualified elector in district; licensed to practice law in state 5 yrs; mandatory
retirment age of 72 Selection and retention methods and term lengths are prescribed by Article VI of the Colorado Constitution.
Florida
Number of Judgeships Supreme Court: 7 District Courts of Appeal: 60 Circuit Court: 597
Number of Districts/Circuits Supreme Court: — District Courts of Appeal: 5 Circuit Court: 20
Geographic Basis for Selection Supreme Court: statewide District Courts of Appeal: district Circuit Court: circuit
Method of Selection (full term) Supreme Court: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission District Courts of Appeal: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission Circuit Court: nonpartisan election*
Length of Term Supreme Court: at least 1 yr District Courts of Appeal: at least 1 yr Circuit Court: 6 yrs
Method of Retention Supreme Court: retention election District Courts of Appeal: retention election Circuit Court: reelection
Length of Subsequent Terms Supreme Court: 6 yrs District Courts of Appeal: 6 yrs Circuit Court: 6 yrs
Method of Filling Interim Vacancies Supreme Court: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission District Courts of Appeal: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission
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Circuit Court: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission When Interim Judges Stand for Election/Appointment
Supreme Court: next general election more than 1 yr after appointment District Courts of Appeal: next general election more than 1 yr after appointment Circuit Court: next general election more than 1 yr after appointment
Selection of Chief Judge/Justice Supreme Court: peer vote District Courts of Appeal: peer vote Circuit Court: peer vote
Term of Office for Chief Judge/Justice Supreme Court: 2 yrs District Courts of Appeal: 2 yrs Circuit Court: 2 yrs
Qualifications Supreme Court: qualified elector; state resident; admitted to practice law in state 10 yrs; mandatory
retirement age of 70 District Courts of Appeal: qualified elector; state resident; admitted to practice law in state 10 yrs; mandatory
retirement age of 70 Circuit Court: qualified elector; circuit resident; admitted to practice law in state 5 yrs;
mandatory retirement age of 70 Selection and retention methods and term lengths are prescribed by Article V of the Florida Constitution and Title
V, Section 43.291.
*If two or more candidates qualify for the ballot, they compete in the first primary election. If no candidate receives a majority of the vote, the top two candidates run in the general election. The voters in each circuit may exercise a local option for merit selection and retention of circuit court judges. A circuit may initiate the local option by filing with the secretary of state a petition signed by a number of voters equal to at least 10% of the votes cast in the circuit in the most recent presidential election. The measure must then be approved by a majority of circuit voters.
Idaho
Number of Judgeships Supreme Court: 5 Court of Appeals: 3 District Court: 40
Number of Districts/Circuits Supreme Court: 0 Court of Appeals: 0 District Court: 7
Geographic Basis for Selection Supreme Court: statewide Court of Appeals: statewide District Court: district
Method of Selection (full term) Supreme Court: nonpartisan election*+ Court of Appeals: nonpartisan election*+ District Court: nonpartisan election*+
Length of Term Supreme Court: 6 yrs Court of Appeals: 6 yrs District Court: 4 yrs
Method of Retention Supreme Court: reelection Court of Appeals: reelection District Court: reelection
Length of Subsequent Terms Supreme Court: 6 yrs Court of Appeals: 6 yrs
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District Court: 4 yrs Method of Filling Interim Vacancies
Supreme Court: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission Court of Appeals: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission District Court: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission
When Interim Judges Stand for Election/Appointment Supreme Court: hold office for remainder of unexpired term Court of Appeals: hold office for remainder of unexpired term District Court: hold office for remainder of unexpired term
Selection of Chief Judge/Justice Supreme Court: peer vote Court of Appeals: chief justice District Court: peer vote
Term of Office for Chief Judge/Justice Supreme Court: 4 yrs Court of Appeals: 2 yrs District Court: 3 yrs
Qualifications Supreme Court: 30 yrs of age; U.S. citizen; state resident 2 yrs; 10 yrs practice of law in ID Court of Appeals: 30 yrs of age; U.S. citizen; state resident 2 yrs; 10 yrs practice of law in ID District Court: 30 yrs of age; U.S. citizen; state resident 2 yrs; resident of judicial district 1 yr; 10
yrs practice of law Selection and retention methods and term lengths are prescribed by Article V of the Idaho Constitution and Sec. 1-
2404 of the Idaho Code. *If no candidate in the primary election wins a majority of the vote, the top two vote getters compete in a runoff
election in the general election.
+Incumbency is designated on the ballot by the name of the previous occupant of the position, assuming that judge runs for reelection.
Illinois
Number of Judgeships Supreme Court: 7 Appellate Court: 42 Circuit Court: 513*
Number of Districts/Circuits Supreme Court: 5 Appellate Court: 5 Circuit Court: 22
Geographic Basis for Selection Supreme Court: district** Appellate Court: district*** Circuit Court: circuit/county****
Method of Selection (full term) Supreme Court: partisan election Appellate Court: partisan election Circuit Court: partisan election
Length of Term Supreme Court: 10 yrs Appellate Court: 10 yrs Circuit Court: 6 yrs
Method of Retention Supreme Court: retention election***** Appellate Court: retention election***** Circuit Court: retention election*****
Length of Subsequent Terms Supreme Court: 10 yrs
Page 8 of 24 JUSTICE FOR ALL CAMPAIGN©
Appellate Court: 10 yrs
Circuit Court: 6 yrs Method of Filling Interim Vacancies
Supreme Court: supreme court appointment Appellate Court: supreme court appointment Circuit Court: supreme court appointment
When Interim Judges Stand for Election/Appointment Supreme Court: next general election more than 60 days after appointment Appellate Court: next general election more than 60 days after appointment Circuit Court: next general election more than 60 days after appointment
Selection of Chief Judge/Justice Supreme Court: peer vote Appellate Court: peer vote Circuit Court: peer vote
Term of Office for Chief Judge/Justice Supreme Court: 3 yrs Appellate Court: 1yr Circuit Court: indefinite
Qualifications Supreme Court: U.S. citizen; district resident; licensed to practice law in state Appellate Court: U.S. citizen; district resident; licensed to practice law in state Circuit Court: U.S. citizen; circuit/county resident; licensed to practice law in state
Selection and retention methods and term lengths are prescribed by Article VI of the Illinois Constitution. *Circuit courts are also served by 391 associate judges who are appointed by circuit judges for four-year terms.
**Three justices are elected at large from the first district (Cook County) and one from each of the other four districts.
***Eighteen judges are elected from the first district (Cook County) and six from each of the other four districts. Additional judges may be assigned on a temporary basis by the supreme court.
****Circuit judges are elected on a circuit-wide basis or from the county where they reside. In Cook County, circuit judges are elected from the entire county or as resident judges from one of the fifteen subcircuits within the county.
*****Judges must receive at least 60% affirmative votes to be retained.
Indiana
Number of Judgeships Supreme Court: 5 Court of Appeals: 15 Circuit Court: 102 Superior Court: 196
Number of Districts/Circuits Supreme Court: — Court of Appeals: 5* Circuit Court: 90 Superior Court: 71
Geographic Basis for Selection Supreme Court: statewide Court of Appeals: district Circuit Court: county Superior Court: county
Method of Selection (full term) Supreme Court: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission Court of Appeals: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission Circuit Court: partisan election** Superior Court: partisan election***
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Length of Term Supreme Court: at least 2 yrs Court of Appeals: at least 2 yrs Circuit Court: 6 yrs Superior Court: 6 yrs
Method of Retention Supreme Court: retention election Court of Appeals: retention election Circuit Court: reelection Superior Court: reelection***
Length of Subsequent Terms Supreme Court: 10 yrs Court of Appeals: 10 yrs Circuit Court: 6 yrs Superior Court: 6 yrs
Method of Filling Interim Vacancies Supreme Court: gubernatorial appointment from judicial nominating commission Court of Appeals: gubernatorial appointment from judicial nominating commission Circuit Court: gubernatorial appointment Superior Court: gubernatorial appointment***
When Interim Judges Stand for Election/Appointment Supreme Court: next general election after 2 yrs in office Court of Appeals: next general election after 2 yrs in office Circuit Court: next general election Superior Court: next general election
Selection of Chief Judge/Justice Supreme Court: judicial nominating commission selects Court of Appeals: peer vote Circuit Court: varies by circuit Superior Court: varies by county
Term of Office for Chief Judge/Justice Supreme Court: 5 yrs Court of Appeals: 3 yrs Circuit Court: varies by circuit Superior Court: varies by county
Qualifications Supreme Court: U.S. citizen; state resident; admitted to state practice 10 yrs or served as judge of
trial court 5 yrs; mandatory retirement age of 75 Court of Appeals: U.S. citizen; state resident; admitted to state practice 10 yrs or served as judge of
trial court 5 yrs; mandatory retirement age of 75 Circuit Court: circuit resident; admitted to practice law in state**** Superior Court: circuit resident; admitted to practice law in state****
Selection and retention methods and term lengths for appellate judges and circuit court judges are prescribed byArticle 7 of the Indiana Constitution. For superior court judges, see Title 33 of the Indiana Code.
*There are three geographic districts and two statewide at-large districts. **Elections for circuit court judges in Vanderburgh County are nonpartisan.
***In Lake and St. Joseph Counties, superior court judges are appointed by the governor from lists of names submitted by local nominating commissions (except judges of the county division of the Lake County superior court, who are elected). Judges stand for retention in the first general election held more than two years after their appointment. Superior court judges in Allen County run without party designation in the general election, and vacancies are filled by the governor from a list of names submitted by the Allen County judicial nominating commission.
****Some counties impose additional qualifications.
Iowa
Page 10 of 24 JUSTICE FOR ALL CAMPAIGN©
Number of Judgeships Supreme Court: 7 Court of Appeals: 9 District Court: 116
Number of Districts/Circuits Supreme Court: – Court of Appeals: – District Court: 14 elective / 8 administrative
Geographic Basis for Selection Supreme Court: statewide Court of Appeals: statewide District Court: district
Method of Selection (full term) Supreme Court: gubernatorial appointment through nominating commission Court of Appeals: gubernatorial appointment through nominating commission District Court: gubernatorial appointment through nominating commission
Length of Term Supreme Court: at least 1 yr Court of Appeals: at least 1 yr District Court: at least 1 yr
Method of Retention Supreme Court: retention election Court of Appeals: retention election District Court: retention election
Length of Subsequent Terms Supreme Court: 8 yrs Court of Appeals: 6 yrs District Court: 6 yrs
Method of Filling Interim Vacancies Supreme Court: gubernatorial appointment through nominating commission Court of Appeals: gubernatorial appointment through nominating commission District Court: gubernatorial appointment through nominating commission
When Interim Judges Stand for Election/Appointment Supreme Court: next general election after 1 yr in office Court of Appeals: next general election after 1 yr in office District Court: next general election after 1 yr in office
Selection of Chief Judge/Justice Supreme Court: peer vote Court of Appeals: peer vote District Court: supreme court selects
Term of Office for Chief Judge/Justice Supreme Court: 8 yrs Court of Appeals: 2 yrs District Court: 2 yrs
Qualifications Supreme Court: licensed in state and member of Iowa bar; resident of state; maximum age of 72 Court of Appeals: licensed in state and member of Iowa bar; resident of state; maximum age of 72 District Court: licensed in state and member of Iowa bar; resident of district; maximum age of 72
Selection and retention methods and term lengths are prescribed by Article V of the Iowa Constitution and Chapter 46 of the Iowa Code.
Note: The Unified Trial Court Act of 1973 established a unified trial court, the district court. The act abolished more than 500 justice of the peace courts, 899 mayor’s courts, 14 municipal courts, and 34 police courts. In addition to district court judges, the unified district court includes district associate judges, associate juvenile judges, associate probate judges, and judicial magistrates who exercise varying degrees of limited jurisdiction. For example, district associate judges hear serious misdemeanor cases of $10,000 or less, associate juvenile judges are limited to juvenile court matters, associate probate judges are limited to probate matters, and judicial magistrates hear simple misdemeanor cases of $4,000 or less within their county of residence. Currently, there are 116 district court judges, 67 district associate judges, and 133 magistrates.
Page 11 of 24 JUSTICE FOR ALL CAMPAIGN©
Kansas
Number of Judgeships Supreme Court: 7 Court of Appeals: 12 District Court: 167*
Number of Districts/Circuits Supreme Court: — Court of Appeals: — District Court: 31
Geographic Basis for Selection Supreme Court: statewide Court of Appeals: statewide District Court: district
Method of Selection (full term) Supreme Court: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission Court of Appeals: gubernatorial appointment with senate confirmation District Court: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission (17 districts); partisan
election (14 districts)
Length of Term Supreme Court: 1yr Court of Appeals: 1yr District Court: 1yr;4yrs
Method of Retention Supreme Court: retention election Court of Appeals: retention election District Court: retention election; reelection
Length of Subsequent Terms Supreme Court: 6 yrs Court of Appeals: 4 yrs District Court: 4 yrs; 4 yrs
Method of Filling Interim Vacancies Supreme Court: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission Court of Appeals: gubernatorial appointment with senate confirmation District Court: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission; gubernatorial appointment
When Interim Judges Stand for Election/Appointment Supreme Court: next general election after at least 1 yr in office Court of Appeals: next general election after at least 1 yr in office District Court: next general election after at least 1 yr in office; next general election
Selection of Chief Judge/Justice Supreme Court: seniority Court of Appeals: supreme court District Court: supreme court
Term of Office for Chief Judge/Justice Supreme Court: indefinite Court of Appeals: indefinite District Court: 2 yrs
Qualifications Supreme Court: 30-70 yrs old; 10 yrs active and continuous practice of law in state Court of Appeals: 30-70 yrs old; 10 yrs active and continuous practice of law in state District Court: state and district resident; maximum age is 70; member in good standing of state
bar > 5 years Selection and retention methods and term lengths are prescribed by Article 3 of the Kansas Constitution and
Chapter 20 of the Kansas Statutes. *There are also 79 district magistrate judges who preside over the early stages of criminal cases, hear limited civil
actions, and handle all juvenile cases. They are not required to be attorneys.
Page 12 of 24 JUSTICE FOR ALL CAMPAIGN©
Maryland
Number of Judgeships Court of Appeals: 7 Court of Special Appeals: 13 Circuit Court: 153
Number of Districts/Circuits Court of Appeals: — Court of Special Appeals: — Circuit Court: —
Geographic Basis for Selection Court of Appeals: circuit Court of Special Appeals: circuit Circuit Court: county/city
Method of Selection (full term) Court of Appeals: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission with senate confirmation Court of Special Appeals: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission with senate confirmation Circuit Court: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission and/or nonpartisan election
Length of Term Court of Appeals: at least one year Court of Special Appeals: at least one year Circuit Court: at least one year
Method of Retention Court of Appeals: retention election Court of Special Appeals: retention election Circuit Court: nonpartisan election*
Length of Subsequent Terms Court of Appeals: 10 years Court of Special Appeals: 10 years Circuit Court: 15 years
Method of Filling Interim Vacancies Court of Appeals: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission with senate confirmation Court of Special Appeals: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission with senate confirmation Circuit Court: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission
When Interim Judges Stand for Election/Appointment Court of Appeals: first general election at least one year after vacancy Court of Special Appeals: first general election at least one year after vacancy Circuit Court: first general election at least one year after vacancy
Selection of Chief Judge/Justice Court of Appeals: designated by governor Court of Special Appeals: designated by governor Circuit Court: seniority
Term of Office for Chief Judge/Justice Court of Appeals: indefinite Court of Special Appeals: indefinite Circuit Court: N/A
Qualifications Court of Appeals: U.S. and state citizen; registered to vote in state elections; state resident 5 yrs;
circuit resident 6 mos; 30 yrs of age; state bar member; mandatory retirement age
of 70 Court of Special Appeals: U.S. and state citizen; registered to vote in state elections; state resident 5 yrs;
circuit resident 6 mos; 30 yrs of age; state bar member; mandatory retirement age
of 70 Circuit Court: U.S. and state citizen; registered to vote in state elections; state resident 5 yrs;
circuit resident 6 mos; 30 yrs of age; state bar member; mandatory retirement age
of 70 Selection and retention methods and term lengths are prescribed by Article IV of the Maryland Constitution
andExecutive Order 01.01.2007.08. Page 13 of 24 JUSTICE FOR ALL CAMPAIGN©
*The names of incumbent judges and challengers appear without party affiliation on both the Republican and Democratic primary ballots. The top votegetters in each primary compete in the general election. Ballots do not denote incumbents.
Missouri
Number of Judgeships Supreme Court: 7 Court of Appeals: 32 Circuit Court: 141** Circuit Court (Kansas City, – Springfield, St. Louis)*:
Number of Districts/Circuits Supreme Court: 1 Court of Appeals: 3 Circuit Court: 45 Circuit Court (Kansas City, – Springfield, St. Louis)*:
Geographic Basis for Selection Supreme Court: statewide Court of Appeals: district Circuit Court: circuit Circuit Court (Kansas City, ” Springfield, St. Louis)*:
Method of Selection (full term) Supreme Court: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission Court of Appeals: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission Circuit Court: partisan election Circuit Court (Kansas City, gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission Springfield, St. Louis)*:
Length of Term Supreme Court: 1-3 yrs Court of Appeals: 1-3 yrs Circuit Court: 6 yrs Circuit Court (Kansas City, ” Springfield, St. Louis)*:
Method of Retention Supreme Court: retention election Court of Appeals: retention election Circuit Court: reelection Circuit Court (Kansas City, retention election Springfield, St. Louis)*:
Length of Subsequent Terms Supreme Court: 12 yrs Court of Appeals: 12 yrs Circuit Court: 6 yrs Circuit Court (Kansas City, ” Springfield, St. Louis)*:
Method of Filling Interim Vacancies Supreme Court: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission Court of Appeals: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission Circuit Court: gubernatorial appointment Circuit Court (Kansas City, gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission Springfield, St. Louis)*:
When Interim Judges Stand for Election/Appointment Supreme Court: next general election after 1 yr in office Court of Appeals: next general election after 1 yr in office Circuit Court: next general election
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Circuit Court (Kansas City, next general election after 1 yr in office
Springfield, St. Louis)*:
Selection of Chief Judge/Justice Supreme Court: rotation with peer vote*** Court of Appeals: rotation with peer vote Circuit Court: elected by circuit and associate judges from among circuit judges Circuit Court (Kansas City, ” Springfield, St. Louis)*:
Term of Office for Chief Judge/Justice Supreme Court: 2 yrs Court of Appeals: 2 yrs Circuit Court: 2 yrs Circuit Court (Kansas City, ” Springfield, St. Louis)*:
Qualifications Supreme Court: U.S. citizen 15 yrs; qualified state voter 9 yrs; licensed to practice in state;
minimum age of 30; mandatory retirement age of 70 Court of Appeals: U.S. citizen 15 yrs; district resident; qualified state voter 9 yrs; licensed to practice
in state; minimum age of 30; mandatory retirement age of 70 Circuit Court: U.S. citizen 10 yrs; qualified state voter 3 yrs; circuit resident 1 yr; licensed to
practice in state; minimum age of 30; mandatory retirement age of 70 Circuit Court (Kansas City, ”
Springfield, St. Louis)*:
Selection and retention methods and term lengths are prescribed by Article V of the Missouri Constitution.
*The constitution establishes a merit selection process for circuit and associate circuit judges in the city of St. Louis and in Jackson County (Kansas City). The constitution also provides that, in other circuits, merit selection may be adopted with the approval of a majority of circuit voters. The question is submitted to the voters of a judicial circuit at the next general election upon the filing of a petition signed by 10% of the voters of each county in the circuit who voted in the last gubernatorial election. The question may not be submitted to voters more often than every four years. Merit selection has been adopted in this way in Clay, Platte, St. Louis, and
Greene Counties. In circuits that have already moved to merit selection, it may be discontinued through the same process.
**The circuit court consists of six divisions: a circuit division, an associate division, a probate division, a municipal division, a juvenile division, and a family court division. The circuit division exercises jurisdiction over all civil and criminal cases and is served by 135 circuit judges. The remaining divisions are served by circuit judges in conjunction with 175 associate circuit judges, 331 municipal judges, and various commissioners. Associate circuit judges are appointed in the same manner as circuit judges and serve four-year terms. Municipal judges are elected or appointed according to city ordinance or charter and serve terms of at least two years. Commissioners are appointed by circuit judges, usually to four-year terms.
***By tradition, the court elects the most senior justice who has not yet held the position.
Nebraska
Number of Judgeships Supreme Court: 7 Court of Appeals: 6 District Court: 55
Number of Districts/Circuits Supreme Court: 6 Court of Appeals: 6 District Court: 12
Geographic Basis for Selection Supreme Court: statewide (chief justice); district (associate justices) Court of Appeals: district District Court: district
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Method of Selection (full term) Supreme Court: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission Court of Appeals: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission District Court: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission
Length of Term Supreme Court: at least 3 yrs Court of Appeals: at least 3 yrs District Court: at least 3 yrs
Method of Retention Supreme Court: retention election Court of Appeals: retention election District Court: retention election
Length of Subsequent Terms Supreme Court: 6 yrs Court of Appeals: 6 yrs District Court: 6 yrs
Method of Filling Interim Vacancies Supreme Court: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission Court of Appeals: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission District Court: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission
When Interim Judges Stand for Election/Appointment Supreme Court: next general election after 3 yrs in office Court of Appeals: next general election after 3 yrs in office District Court: next general election after 3 yrs in office
Selection of Chief Judge/Justice Supreme Court: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission Court of Appeals: peer vote with supreme court approval District Court: peer vote
Term of Office for Chief Judge/Justice Supreme Court: duration of service Court of Appeals: 2 yrs District Court: 1yr
Qualifications Supreme Court: U.S. citizen; > 3 yrs state resident; district resident; minimum age of 30; > 5 yrs
state practice; state bar member Court of Appeals: U.S. citizen; state resident; minimum age of 30; > 5 yrs state practice; state bar
member District Court: U.S. citizen; district resident; minimum age of 30; > 5 yrs state practice; state bar
member Selection and retention methods and term lengths are prescribed by Article V of the Nebraska Constitution
and Section 24-1101 of the Nebraska Revised Statutes.
New Mexico
Number of Judgeships Supreme Court: 5 Court of Appeals: 10 District Court: 84
Number of Districts/Circuits Supreme Court: — Court of Appeals: — District Court: 13
Geographic Basis for Selection Supreme Court: statewide Court of Appeals: statewide District Court: district
Method of Selection (full term)
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Supreme Court: partisan election* Court of Appeals: partisan election* District Court: partisan election*
Length of Term Supreme Court: remainder of unexpired term* Court of Appeals: remainder of unexpired term* District Court: remainder of unexpired term*
Method of Retention Supreme Court: retention election** Court of Appeals: retention election** District Court: retention election**
Length of Subsequent Terms Supreme Court: 8 yrs Court of Appeals: 8 yrs District Court: 6 yrs
Method of Filling Interim Vacancies Supreme Court: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission Court of Appeals: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission District Court: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission
When Interim Judges Stand for Election/Appointment Supreme Court: next general election* Court of Appeals: next general election* District Court: next general election*
Selection of Chief Judge/Justice Supreme Court: peer vote*** Court of Appeals: peer vote District Court: varies by district
Term of Office for Chief Judge/Justice Supreme Court: 2 yrs Court of Appeals: 2 yrs District Court: varies by district
Qualifications Supreme Court: minimum age of 35; 10 yrs legal practice; state resident 3 yrs Court of Appeals: minimum age of 35; 10 yrs legal practice; state resident 3 yrs District Court: minimum age of 35; 6 yrs legal practice; state resident 3 yrs; district resident
Selection and retention methods and term lengths are prescribed by Article VI of the New Mexico Constitution.
*All judicial vacancies are filled by the governor from a list of candidates recommended by a judicial nominating commission. The appointee must then compete in a partisan election at the next general election to serve the remainder of the unexpired term.
**Judges must receive at least 57% in affirmative votes to be retained. ***By tradition, the court elects the most senior justice who has not yet held the position.
North Carolina
Number of Judgeships Supreme Court: 7 Court of Appeals: 15 Superior Court: 95
Number of Districts/Circuits Supreme Court: — Court of Appeals: — Superior Court: 65*
Geographic Basis for Selection Supreme Court: statewide Court of Appeals: statewide Superior Court: district
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Method of Selection (full term) Supreme Court: nonpartisan election** Court of Appeals: nonpartisan election** Superior Court: nonpartisan election**
Length of Term Supreme Court: 8 yrs Court of Appeals: 8 yrs Superior Court: 8 yrs
Method of Retention Supreme Court: reelection Court of Appeals: reelection Superior Court: reelection
Length of Subsequent Terms Supreme Court: 8 yrs Court of Appeals: 8 yrs Superior Court: 8 yrs
Method of Filling Interim Vacancies Supreme Court: merit selection Court of Appeals: merit selection Superior Court: merit selection
When Interim Judges Stand for Election/Appointment Supreme Court: next general election more than 60 days after vacancy occurred Court of Appeals: next general election more than 60 days after vacancy occurred Superior Court: next general election more than 60 days after vacancy occurred; serve remainder of
unexpired term Selection of Chief Judge/Justice
Supreme Court: nonpartisan election Court of Appeals: chief justice appoints Superior Court: seniority
Term of Office for Chief Judge/Justice Supreme Court: 8 yrs Court of Appeals: indefinite Superior Court: indefinite
Qualifications Supreme Court: licensed to practice law in state; mandatory retirement age of 72 Court of Appeals: licensed to practice law in state; mandatory retirement age of 72 Superior Court: licensed to practice law in state; mandatory retirement age of 72
Selection and retention methods and term lengths are prescribed by Article IV of the North Carolina Constitution. *The superior court is also divided into eight divisions. Every six months, superior court judges rotate among the
districts within their division.
**If there are more than two candidates for a position, a nonpartisan primary election is held. The top two vote getters in the primary compete in the general election.
Oklahoma
Number of Judgeships Supreme Court: 9 Court of Criminal Appeals: 5 Court of Civil Appeals: 12 District Court: 75*
Number of Districts/Circuits Supreme Court: 9 Court of Criminal Appeals: 5 Court of Civil Appeals: 6 District Court: 26
Geographic Basis for Selection Supreme Court: district
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Court of Criminal Appeals: district Court of Civil Appeals: district District Court: district
Method of Selection (full term) Supreme Court: gubernatorial appointment through nominating commission Court of Criminal Appeals: gubernatorial appointment through nominating commission Court of Civil Appeals: gubernatorial appointment through nominating commission District Court: nonpartisan election**
Length of Term Supreme Court: at least 1 yr Court of Criminal Appeals: at least 1 yr Court of Civil Appeals: at least 1 yr District Court: 4 yrs
Method of Retention Supreme Court: retention election Court of Criminal Appeals: retention election Court of Civil Appeals: retention election District Court: reelection
Length of Subsequent Terms Supreme Court: 6 yrs Court of Criminal Appeals: 6 yrs Court of Civil Appeals: 6 yrs District Court: 4 yrs
Method of Filling Interim Vacancies Supreme Court: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission Court of Criminal Appeals: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission Court of Civil Appeals: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission District Court: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission
When Interim Judges Stand for Election/Appointment Supreme Court: next general election; hold office for remainder of unexpired term Court of Criminal Appeals: next general election; hold office for remainder of unexpired term Court of Civil Appeals: next general election; hold office for remainder of unexpired term District Court: next general election; hold office for remainder of unexpired term
Selection of Chief Judge/Justice Supreme Court: peer vote Court of Criminal Appeals: peer vote Court of Civil Appeals: peer vote District Court: peer vote
Term of Office for Chief Judge/Justice Supreme Court: 2 yrs Court of Criminal Appeals: 2 yrs Court of Civil Appeals: 1yr District Court: 1yr
Qualifications Supreme Court: 30 yrs of age; qualified elector in district > 1 yr; licensed to practice or judge of
court of record > 5 yrs Court of Criminal Appeals: 30 yrs of age; qualified elector in district > 1 yr; licensed to practice or judge of
court of record > 5 yrs Court of Civil Appeals: qualified elector in district > 1 yr; licensed to practice or judge of court of record >
4 yrs District Court: qualified elector in district > 1 yr; licensed to practice or judge of court of record >
4 yrs Selection and retention methods and term lengths are prescribed by Articles 7 and 7B of the Oklahoma
Constitution and Title 20, Section 30-18 of the Oklahoma Statutes. *Number does not include district associate judges and special judges.
**A nonpartisan primary is held if more than two candidates file for a district court judgeship. If a candidate wins a majority of votes in the primary, the candidate is elected and does not run in the general election.
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Pennsylvania
Number of Judgeships Supreme Court: 7 Superior Court: 15 Commonwealth Court: 9 Court of Common Pleas: 439
Number of Districts/Circuits Supreme Court: 1 Superior Court: 1 Commonwealth Court: 1 Court of Common Pleas: 60
Geographic Basis for Selection Supreme Court: statewide Superior Court: statewide Commonwealth Court: statewide Court of Common Pleas: district
Method of Selection (full term) Supreme Court: partisan election* Superior Court: partisan election* Commonwealth Court: partisan election* Court of Common Pleas: partisan election*
Length of Term Supreme Court: 10 yrs Superior Court: 10 yrs Commonwealth Court: 10 yrs Court of Common Pleas: 10 yrs
Method of Retention Supreme Court: retention election Superior Court: retention election Commonwealth Court: retention election Court of Common Pleas: retention election
Length of Subsequent Terms Supreme Court: 10 yrs Superior Court: 10 yrs Commonwealth Court: 10 yrs Court of Common Pleas: 10 yrs
Method of Filling Interim Vacancies Supreme Court: gubernatorial appointment with two-thirds senate approval Superior Court: gubernatorial appointment with two-thirds senate approval Commonwealth Court: gubernatorial appointment with two-thirds senate approval Court of Common Pleas: gubernatorial appointment with two-thirds senate approval
When Interim Judges Stand for Election/Appointment Supreme Court: next municipal election more than 10 mos after vacancy occurs or upon expiration of
term** Superior Court: next municipal election more than 10 mos after vacancy occurs or upon expiration of
term** Commonwealth Court: next municipal election more than 10 mos after vacancy occurs or upon expiration of
term** Court of Common Pleas: next municipal election more than 10 mos after vacancy occurs or upon expiration of
term Selection of Chief Judge/Justice
Supreme Court: seniority Superior Court: peer vote Commonwealth Court: peer vote Court of Common Pleas: seniority or peer vote
Term of Office for Chief Judge/Justice Supreme Court: duration of term
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Superior Court: 5 yrs Commonwealth Court: 5 yrs Court of Common Pleas: 5 yrs
Qualifications Supreme Court: 1 yr state resident; maximum age of 70; state bar member Superior Court: 1 yr state resident; maximum age of 70; state bar member Commonwealth Court: 1 yr state resident; maximum age of 70; state bar member Court of Common Pleas: 1 yr district resident; maximum age of 70; state bar member
Selection and retention methods and term lengths are prescribed by Article V of the Pennsylvania Constitution. *If more than one open seat is being filled, all of the candidates run at large and the top vote getters fill the open
seats. **By tradition, interim appointees to the appellate courts do not stand for election.
South Dakota
Number of Judgeships Supreme Court: 5 Circuit Court: 39
Number of Districts/Circuits Supreme Court: 5 Circuit Court: 7
Geographic Basis for Selection Supreme Court: district appointment; statewide retention Circuit Court: circuit
Method of Selection (full term) Supreme Court: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission Circuit Court: nonpartisan election*
Length of Term Supreme Court: at least 3 yrs Circuit Court: 8 yrs
Method of Retention Supreme Court: retention election Circuit Court: reelection
Length of Subsequent Terms Supreme Court: 8 yrs Circuit Court: 8 yrs
Method of Filling Interim Vacancies Supreme Court: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission Circuit Court: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission
When Interim Judges Stand for Election/Appointment Supreme Court: next general election after 3 yrs in office Circuit Court: hold office for remainder of unexpired term
Selection of Chief Judge/Justice Supreme Court: peer vote Circuit Court: chief justice appoints
Term of Office for Chief Judge/Justice Supreme Court: 4 yrs Circuit Court: at pleasure of chief justice
Qualifications Supreme Court: U.S. citizen; state resident; voting resident within district; licensed to practice law
in state; mandatory retirement age of 70 Circuit Court: U.S. citizen; state resident; voting resident within circuit; licensed to practice law in
state; mandatory retirement age of 70 Selection and retention methods and term lengths are prescribed by Article V of the South Dakota Constitution.
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*If more than two candidates file for a judicial position, the two candidates receiving the highest number of votes in the primary election run in the general election. If no more than two candidates file for a judicial position, no primary election is held for the position.
Tennessee
Number of Judgeships Supreme Court: 5 Court of Appeals: 12 Court of Criminal Appeals: 12 Chancery Court: 35 Criminal Court: 33 Circuit Court: 85 Probate Court: 2
Number of Districts/Circuits Supreme Court: 1 Court of Appeals: 1 Court of Criminal Appeals: 1 Chancery Court: 27 Criminal Court: 13 Circuit Court: 31 Probate Court: 1
Geographic Basis for Selection Supreme Court: statewide Court of Appeals: statewide Court of Criminal Appeals: statewide Chancery Court: district Criminal Court: district Circuit Court: district Probate Court: district
Method of Selection (full term) Supreme Court: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission Court of Appeals: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission Court of Criminal Appeals: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission Chancery Court: partisan election* Criminal Court: partisan election* Circuit Court: partisan election* Probate Court: partisan election*
Length of Term Supreme Court: until next general election at least 30 days after vacancy occurred Court of Appeals: until next general election at least 30 days after vacancy occurred Court of Criminal Appeals: until next general election at least 30 days after vacancy occurred Chancery Court: 8 yrs Criminal Court: 8 yrs Circuit Court: 8 yrs Probate Court: 8 yrs
Method of Retention Supreme Court: retention election Court of Appeals: retention election Court of Criminal Appeals: retention election Chancery Court: reelection Criminal Court: reelection Circuit Court: reelection Probate Court: reelection
Length of Subsequent Terms Supreme Court: 8 yrs Court of Appeals: 8 yrs Court of Criminal Appeals: 8 yrs
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Chancery Court: 8 yrs Criminal Court: 8 yrs Circuit Court: 8 yrs Probate Court: 8 yrs
Method of Filling Interim Vacancies Supreme Court: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission Court of Appeals: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission Court of Criminal Appeals: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission Chancery Court: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission Criminal Court: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission Circuit Court: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission Probate Court: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission
When Interim Judges Stand for Election/Appointment Supreme Court: next general election at least 30 days after vacancy occurred; hold office for
remainder of unexpired term Court of Appeals: next general election at least 30 days after vacancy occurred; hold office for
remainder of unexpired term Court of Criminal Appeals: next general election at least 30 days after vacancy occurred; hold office for
remainder of unexpired term Chancery Court: next general election at least 30 days after vacancy occurred; hold office for
remainder of unexpired term Criminal Court: next general election at least 30 days after vacancy occurred; hold office for
remainder of unexpired term Circuit Court: next general election at least 30 days after vacancy occurred; hold office for
remainder of unexpired term Probate Court: next general election at least 30 days after vacancy occurred; hold office for
remainder of unexpired term Selection of Chief Judge/Justice
Supreme Court: peer vote Court of Appeals: peer vote Court of Criminal Appeals: peer vote Chancery Court: a presiding judge is selected in each judicial district Criminal Court: a presiding judge is selected in each judicial district Circuit Court: a presiding judge is selected in each judicial district Probate Court: —
Term of Office for Chief Judge/Justice Supreme Court: 4 yrs Court of Appeals: 1yr Court of Criminal Appeals: 1 yr Chancery Court: 1yr Criminal Court: 1yr Circuit Court: 1yr Probate Court: —
Qualifications Supreme Court: authorized to practice law in state; minimum age of 35; state resident 5 yrs Court of Appeals: authorized to practice law in state; minimum age of 30; state resident 5 yrs and
district resident 1 yr Court of Criminal Appeals: authorized to practice law in state; minimum age of 30; state resident 5 yrs and
district resident 1 yr Chancery Court: authorized to practice law in state; minimum age of 30; state resident 5 yrs and
district resident 1 yr Criminal Court: authorized to practice law in state; minimum age of 30; state resident 5 yrs and
district resident 1 yr Circuit Court: authorized to practice law in state; minimum age of 30; state resident 5 yrs and
district resident 1 yr Probate Court: authorized to practice law in state; minimum age of 30; state resident 5 yrs and
district resident 1 yr Selection and retention methods and term lengths are prescribed by Article VI of the Tennessee Constitution and
Title 17, Chapter 4 of the Tennessee Code. Page 23 of 24 JUSTICE FOR ALL CAMPAIGN©
*Per statute, each county legislative body has the discretion to require elections to be conducted in a nonpartisan manner.
Utah
Number of Judgeships Supreme Court: 5 Court of Appeals: 7 District Court: 70
Number of Districts/Circuits Supreme Court: — Court of Appeals: — District Court: 8
Geographic Basis for Selection Supreme Court: statewide Court of Appeals: statewide District Court: district
Method of Selection (full term) Supreme Court: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission with senate confirmation Court of Appeals: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission with senate confirmation District Court: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission with senate confirmation
Length of Term Supreme Court: at least 3 yrs Court of Appeals: at least 3 yrs District Court: at least 3 yrs
Method of Retention Supreme Court: retention election Court of Appeals: retention election District Court: retention election
Length of Subsequent Terms Supreme Court: 10 yrs Court of Appeals: 6 yrs District Court: 6 yrs
Method of Filling Interim Vacancies Supreme Court: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission with senate confirmation Court of Appeals: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission with senate confirmation District Court: gubernatorial appointment from nominating commission with senate confirmation
When Interim Judges Stand for Election/Appointment Supreme Court: first general election more than 3 yrs after appointment Court of Appeals: first general election more than 3 yrs after appointment District Court: first general election more than 3 yrs after appointment
Selection of Chief Judge/Justice Supreme Court: peer vote Court of Appeals: peer vote District Court: peer vote
Term of Office for Chief Judge/Justice Supreme Court: 4 yrs Court of Appeals: 2 yrs District Court: 2 yrs
Qualifications Supreme Court: U.S. citizen; state resident 5 yrs; 30 yrs of age; admitted to practice law in state;
mandatory retirement at 75 Court of Appeals: U.S. citizen; state resident 3 yrs; 25 yrs of age; admitted to practice law in state;
mandatory retirement at 75 District Court: U.S. citizen; state resident 3 yrs; 25 yrs of age; admitted to practice law in state;
mandatory retirement at 75 Selection and retention methods and term lengths are prescribed by Article VIII of the Utah Constiution.
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